## Exploring the substructure of matter with Machine Learning

## On the derivatives of neural networks

One of the most important features of NNs is its compliance with the universal approximation theorem...

2 minute read## Quarks and gluons Distribution

In 1983 at CERN, a difference between the probability that an electron scatters off an atomic nucleus and that of the same number of free protons and neutrons was observed...

2 minute read## Quarks and gluons Fragmentation

Fragmentation Functions (FFs) encode the long-distance dynamics of the interactions among quarks and gluons which lead to their hadronisation...

2 minute read^{-15}m). The gluon interaction becomes even stronger for larger distances and weaker for smaller ones, a feature called asymptotic freedom. This property leads to the confinement of quarks and gluons (collectively called partons) within a nucleon and is also responsible for the fact that a parton cannot be measured or observed as a free particle. In fact whenever a parton gets knocked out of a nucleon, it instantly starts to fragment into other partons until it hadronises, forming a new hadron (a bound state of 2 or more quarks).

QCD yields many quantities that are not calculable by means of perturbative
methods and needs to be extracted from measured data. That is due to the observed nature of the strong force that makes
the interactions between quarks and gluons becomes strong (non-perturbative) at low-energies, leading to their
confinement within composite hadrons.